Before the end of 2016, will a North American country, the EU, or an EU member state impose sanctions on another country in response to a cyber attack or cyber espionage?
This question was closed as "Yes" with an end date of 29 December 2016. The US imposed sanctions on Russia for malicious cyber activity on that date (The White House , The Treasury, Reuters).
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Although the US and China agreed to cooperate on cyber security issues during Xi's visit to Washington, President Obama's threats in the wake of the OPM data breach made it clear that the United States is committed to responding to cyber warfare and cyber espionage (Washington Post, NY Times). The OPM data breach also propelled cyber security to the top of Europe's agenda (EUROPA, EUobserver). Recommended Questions Will there be any publicly disclosed cyber attacks on nuclear facilities before the end of 2016? Will the US or the UN impose any new sanctions on Iran before 18 October 2016?